Article uses three citation styles: inline footnotes, a "references section" and a "further reading" section. For example, the first citation, Leeker & Carlozzi, points to the further reading section. Infidelity (synonyms include: cheating, adultery (when married), netorare (NTR), being unfaithful, or having an affair) is a violation of a couple's assumed or stated contract regarding emotional and/or sexual exclusivity.
In that study which involved 19,065 people during a 15-year period, rates of infidelity among men were found to have risen from 20 to 28%, and rates for women, 5% to 15%.A survey conducted in 1990 found 2.2% of married participants reported having more than one partner during the past year.Strategic pluralism is a theory that focuses on how environmental factors influence mating strategies.According to this theory, when people live within environments that are demanding and stressful, the need for bi-parental care is greater for increasing the survival of offspring.Results, however, vary year by year, and also by age-group surveyed.
For example, one study conducted by the University of Washington, Seattle found slightly, or significantly higher rates of infidelity for populations under 35, or older than 60.
In marital relationships, exclusivity expectations are commonly assumed although they are not always met.
When they are not met, research has found that psychological damage can occur, including feelings of rage and betrayal, lowering of sexual and personal confidence, and damage to self-image.
According to The New York Times, the most consistent data on infidelity comes from the University of Chicago's General Social Survey (GSS).
Interviews with people in non-monogamous relationships since 1972 by the GSS have shown that approximately 12% of men and 7% of women admit to having had an extramarital relationship.
For example, one study found that some women in more financially independent and higher positions of power, were also more likely to be more unfaithful to their partners.