By vaporizing graphite with lasers, the scientists created a mysterious new molecule made of pure carbon, according to the American Chemical Society.
This molecule turned out to be a soccer-ball-shaped sphere made of 60 carbon atoms.
Atoms are arranged as a nucleus surrounded by an electron cloud, with electrons zinging around at different distances from the nucleus.Chemists conceive of these distances as shells, and define the properties of atoms by what is in each shell, according to the University of California, Davis.Plants take it up in respiration, in which they convert sugars made during photosynthesis back into energy that they use to grow and maintain other processes, according to Colorado State University.Animals incorporate carbon-14 into their bodies by eating plants or other plant-eating animals.Carbon chemistry is still hot enough to capture Nobel Prizes: In 2010, researchers from Japan and the United States won one for figuring out how to link carbon atoms together using palladium atoms, a method that enables the manufacture of large, complex carbon molecules, according to the Nobel Foundation.
Scientists and engineers are working with these carbon nanomaterials to build materials straight out of science-fiction.
Carbon as coal is still a major source of fuel worldwide, providing about 30 percent of energy worldwide, according to the World Coal Association.
Coal is also a key component in steel production, while graphite, another form of carbon, is a common industrial lubricant.
In fact, the same element that our prehistoric ancestors burned as charcoal may be the key to next-generation tech materials.
In 1985, Rick Smalley and Robert Curl of Rice University in Texas and their colleagues discovered a new form of carbon.
Carbon-14 is a radioactive isotope of carbon used by archaeologists to date objects and remains.