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*/ var render Promo Details = function(should Show Popover) ; /* CLAIM CODE REDEMPTION Promotion/GC redemption click handler.This will perform an ajax call to redeem a promotion or gift card and display an informative message upon return.Given limitations on space and our own expertise, we confine our discussion to hermaphroditic animals, but emphasize here that plants undoubtedly also offer tremendous promise to expand our understanding of sexual conflict (e.g., Charnov 1979; Bernasconi et al.2004; Arnqvist and Rowe 2005; Lankinen and Larsson 2009; Madjidian et al. Conventionally, evidence for both intra- and interlocus sexual conflict relies on measuring fitness effects in two types of individuals that must, by definition, have opposite sexes (Table 1).Specifically, the (proto)male sexual strategy of making more but smaller gametes—driven by (proto)sperm competition—likely forced the (proto)female sexual strategy into investing more resources per gamete (Parker et al. In different species, the male and female sexual strategies can be distributed over individuals in various ways (Hamilton 1967; Charnov 1982; Munday et al. In the most familiar—gonochorism—they are always confined to different individuals, namely, males and females, as exemplified by some of the best-studied animal groups (e.g., insects, birds, and mammals).

But another way—hermaphroditism, in which every individual can exhibit both sexual strategies—is in fact very widespread, occurring in ∼70% of animal phyla (Jarne and Auld 2006) and 90% of plant genera (Renner and Ricklefs 1995). Here, we show that sexual conflict thinking has equal validity when applied to hermaphroditic taxa (Table 1).This simple fact means that they exhibit both similarities and differences in the way in which they experience, and respond to, sexual conflict compared to separate-sexed organisms.Here, we focus on clarifying how sexual conflict concepts can be adapted to apply to all anisogamous sexual systems and review unique (or especially important) aspects of sexual conflict in hermaphroditic animals.*/ var click Promo Link = function(should Show Popover) ; /* ELIGIBLE PROMOTION CHECKS check For Promos And Render This is a series of 2 nested ajax calls.The first does a relatively quick lookup to see if there are any eligible promotions for this ASIN or for this customer.Conceptual and empirical work on sexual conflict is dominated by studies on gonochorists (species with separate sexes) (e.g., Parker 1979, 2006; Rice and Holland 1997; Holland and Rice 1998; Rice and Chippindale 2001; Chapman et al. 2006), and the same is true for other evolutionary aspects of sexual reproduction, such as sexual selection (e.g., Andersson 1994; Shuster and Wade 2003) and, to a lesser extent, sex allocation (e.g., Charnov 1982; Hardy 2002; West 2009).