See Hominids and Early Man Websites and Resources on Prehistory: Human Prehistory gr/~dilos/; Wikipedia article on Prehistory Wikipedia ; Early Humans elibrary.sd71ca/subject_resources ; Prehistoric Art edu/ARTHprehistoric ; National Geographic Atlas of the Human Journey genographic.nationalgeographic.com/genographic/atlas ; Early Modern Man: Evolution of Modern Humans anthro.; Virtual Ice Age uk/Explore/virtually-the-ice-age ; Stone Age Tools Websites and Resources of Early Agriculture and Domesticated Animals: Origins of Agriculture comp-archaeology.org/Agriculture Origins ; Britannica britannica.com/ ; Wikipedia article History of Agriculture said that ; History of Food and Agriculture museum.agropolis ; Wikipedia article Animal Domestication Wikipedia ; Cattle Domestication ; Food Timeline, History of Food ; Food and History teacheroz.com/food ; Iceman Photscan iceman.eurac.edu/ ; Otzi Official Site Looting ancient sites and digging up graves to find treasures has been around since the beginning of civilization but painstakingly excavated sites and carefully studying what is there---archaeology, in other words---is a relatively new idea. Many objects obtained in the Middle East were obtained through the Ottoman patronage system. Andre Lero-Gourhan revolutionized the practice of excavations by recognizing that vertical digs destroy the context of a site.
The modern science of archaeology was invented in the 17th century. Over 20 years (1964-1984) he and his students painstakingly excavated “scraping away the soil in small horizontal squares and making notes of where everything was located” the 12,000-year-old site of Pincevent, offering of the most detailed picture up to that point of life in the Paleolithic period.
The easiest way to determine sex is by examining the pelvic bones.
When something is found it is often swept with a brush and removed with a trowel so it doesn’t break.Artifacts are brought into workshops are catalogued. Other objects are restored in the work room or laboratory.Most of things that we know about everyday life in ancient times has been determined by looking at scenes depicted on vases, examining tools, remains and artifacts left at archaeological sites and drawing clues from literary and historical texts.The age of an individual died can be determined by looking at the knitting of the suture on the cranium, which closes as people age, and by noting how worn the teeth are.And all of a sudden it makes clear things like the flute, the flute from Hohle Fels Cave [in Germany], which is mammoth ivory, and the tiny fragments that were not understood for decades, but they were preserved.
That's a fine thing, yes, until somebody came who had the kind of imagination like the young woman who is in the film, Maria Malina, an archaeological technician who had the insight and started to put the fragments together.
They do things that are unprecedented, in a way, and it's very beautiful to see that. For example, a square foot in one of the caves in the film---it took five months to remove half a centimeter of sediment.
Every single grain of sand was picked up with a pair of pincers and documented with laser measurements.
Soil, sand and excavated material are sifted through screen to retrieve small artifacts.
Archaeologists often dig a series of trial trenches to figure out the best places to excavate.
Pots are restored by removing old varnished made from glues made from animal hooves and applying sealants that do not become discolored.