Nausea is mediated through the autonomic nervous system.
Vomiting results from the stimulation of a complex reflex that includes a convergence of afferent stimulation from the following:[1,2] Neurotransmitters (including serotonin, substance P, and dopamine found in the CTZ), the vomiting center (thought to be located in the nucleus tractus solitarius), and enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract then release efferent impulses that are transmitted to the abdominal musculature, salivation center, and respiratory center.
Familiarity among dermatologists is significantly on the rise and is a decreasing barrier for use of the biologic.Consistent with prior quarters, the vast majority of respondents continue to view Dupixent as a significant advance over other treatment options for atopic dermatitis, and the majority also report that they are extremely comfortable with Dupixent as a treatment for their adult atopic dermatitis patients.Though the atopic dermatitis pipeline is bursting with development, Dupixent is likely to maintain it's first and only biologic on the atopic dermatitis market status for quite some time, and the majority of dermatologists agree that Dupixent's status as the first ever approved biologic for AD will be a substantial advantage over subsequent biologic approvals.In general, dermatologists are not highly familiar with specific compounds in development, though oral small molecules that come with biologic-style efficacy are highly desired.The relative contribution from these multiple pathways culminating in N&V symptoms is complex and is postulated to account for the variable emetogenicity (intrinsic emetogenicity and mitigating factors [i.e., dosage, administration route, and exposure duration]) and emetogenic profile (i.e., time to onset, symptom severity, and duration) of agents.[3,4] Although most patients receiving chemotherapy are at risk of nausea and vomiting (emesis) (N&V), the onset, severity, triggers, and duration vary.
Factors related to the tumor, treatment, and patient all contribute to N&V, including tumor location, chemotherapy agents used, and radiation exposure.[1-3] Patient-related factors may include the following: Clinicians treating N&V must be alert to all potential causes and factors, especially in cancer patients who may be receiving combinations of several treatments and medications.
Vomiting is the forceful expulsion of the contents of the stomach, duodenum, or jejunum through the oral cavity.
Retching involves the gastric and esophageal movements of vomiting without expulsion of vomitus; it is also referred to as dry heaves.
Despite widespread use and continued positive projections, dermatologists' perceptions of Eucrisa are not so rosy.
Eucrisa garners the lowest satisfaction ratings among all approved atopic dermatitis treatments, with only one in ten citing that they are very satisfied with the topical PDE4 inhibitor.
The series tracks the evolution of the atopic dermatitis market, provides a deep dive on launch effectiveness, and highlights opportunities for pipeline agents.