While true to a point, it ignores the rampant racism African Americans experienced in the North, especially after the Great Migration to industrial cities during and after World War I.
If it had been otherwise then southern racism wouldn’t have been a problem because Blacks could’ve just followed a red carpet north. Du Bois wanted to use the courts to beef up the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments, to secure basic rights of citizenship and voting.
Instead, what was red was the blood running into street drains when soldiers returned home from WWI to find Blacks and Mexicans living in their neighborhoods and working in their factories. By the 1920s, Ku Klux Klan chapters were entrenched across the North. This push for equality was known as the Niagara Movement, named for the “mighty current of change” that swept over Niagara Falls.
Yet, when he went to his own reception at the Waldorf-Astoria he had to ride the freight elevator.
While much has been made of Hitler snubbing Owens and refusing to shake his hand (he quit shaking all hands after the first day to avoid such situations), Franklin Roosevelt snubbed Owens as well.
Sometimes, as in the case of Mississippian Will Echols, the victim was made to kiss the Confederate flag before being killed.
It’s been said, with some accuracy, that while the North won the Civil War the South won Reconstruction.
Black lynchings and ritual burnings attracted huge crowds, who gathered around the corpse afterward to pose for photos.
The photo on the left was likely sold as a postcard that witnesses could send to friends and relatives.Likewise, when things started to change, people of various races and backgrounds contributed to making America a more democratic society.Eleanor Roosevelt, for instance, was white, and reared in many of the typical attitudes of the patrician class, including an intolerance of Jews and Blacks.These strategies weren’t mutually exclusive, but two of them – using the Constitution and promoting education – combined as important strategies of the modern Civil Rights Movement a generation later.While the civil rights movement is most famously associated with black America, their tactics and spirit carried over into liberation movements among all oppressed Americans.In 1939, the NAACP arranged for the contralto to sing in front of the Lincoln Memorial.