This cookie stores just a session ID; no other information is captured.
Either their transgressions of social norms, while destructive and painful to those involved, do not rise to the level of criminal activity, or they are never apprehended by the police for the crimes they do commit.
While true psychopaths share certain behavioral and emotional attributes, they are not all identical, and they exhibit these various characteristics to a greater or lesser degree.
Hare's works have tended to be somewhat sensationalized and have co-mingled academic and lay (newspaper type) accounts. doi: 10.1007/s11920-005-0026-3 Psychopathy traditionally is defined by a cluster of inferred personality traits and socially deviant behaviors. The Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 4, 217-246. Factor 2 is strongly correlated with these latter variables and with scales related to socialization.
Despite much research on neurophysiological correlates of psychopathy, no clear consensus has developed yet concerning a neuropsychological theory of psychopathy. The accepted standard for the reliable and valid assessment of psychopathy is the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). doi: 10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.3.022806.091452 In this review, we focus on two major influences on current conceptualizations of psychopathy: one clinical, with its origins largely in the early case studies of Cleckley, and the other empirical, the result of widespread use of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) for assessment purposes. We conclude that both factors measure important elements of psychopathy and that assessments based only on the presence of antisocial behavior or on scales related to socialization are inadequate.
Many points of controversy are left unanswered and many key issues remain to be addressed. Because of its importance in basic and applied research, and in the mental health and criminal justice systems, the PCL-R has been subjected to intense scrutiny by researchers and clinicians. Some investigators assert that the PCL-R, ostensibly based on Cleckley's work, has "drifted" from the construct described in his Clinical Profile.
— Types of psychopaths commonly identified: Psychopathy is a psychological condition in which the individual shows a profound lack of empathy for the feelings of others, a willingness to engage in immoral and antisocial behavior for short-term gains, and extreme egocentricity. In this article we discuss issues surrounding its structural properties and those of its derivatives. We evaluate this profile, note its basis in an unrepresentative sample of patients, and suggest that its literal and uncritical acceptance by the research community has become problematical. We now have an impressive body of replicable and meaningful empirical findings, due in large part to the widespread adoption of the PCL-R and its derivatives as a common working model of psychopathy.
Worse, psychopaths are often superficially charming and glib; they are frequently able to take advantage of others because they know that acting genuinely friendly and helpful can be a useful strategy for getting what they want.
While violence may be an option, a psychopath is just as willing to use a well-timed compliment, a subtle misstatement of the truth, or an exaggerated apology to achieve his or her self-serving goals.
This isn't aggression that arises from an emotional reaction; it's the calculated use of aggression as a tool.
Reactive aggression, on the other hand, is much more impulsive and emotion driven and arises from a perceived threat or attack or uncontrolled anger.
Cleckley's emphasis of the psychopath as a constellation of various personality traits was essentially overturned by the American psychiatric establishment in revisions to the DSM, culminating in 1980 in a behaviorally based description and the use of the term antisocial personality disorder. Males showed a stronger modulatory relationship between inferior parietal activity and moral ratings relative to females. Consistent with hypotheses, an analysis of brain activity during the evaluation of pictures depicting moral violations in psychopaths versus nonpsychopaths showed atypical activity in several regions involved in moral decision-making. doi:10.1016/0162-3095(87)90019-7 Sociopathy in males and hysteria (Briquet's syndrome) in females very closely fit predictions from a model of characteristics of cheaters or nonreciprocators in a complex social system. Two correlated factors have been identified in the Psychopathy Checklist (PCL), a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of psychopathy in male prison populations.